• Poverty: strong departmental disparities, the Seine-Saint-Denis most affected
With a poverty rate of 24.8%, Seine-Saint-Denis is the most affected department in France. Aude (21%), Pas-de-Calais (20.7%) and Pyrénées-Orientales (20.4%) are also among the most represented. The Yvelines stand out with a rate of 8.2%, according to the latest figures published by INSEE. “Four variables can explain unemployment, the evolution of family structures with more and more single-parent families, immigration and retirees,” says Julien Damon, a professor at Sciences Po. In 2011, the threshold of the poverty rate in 60% of the median standard of living amounted to € 11,730 for metropolitan France, says INSEE.
Young people are still the most represented in France, with a poverty rate of 20.8% in the province and 20.5% in metropolitan France, details the institute. The Seine-Saint-Denis concentrates the largest number with a rate amounting to 34%. The Pas-de-Calais (30.7%) and the Eastern Pyrenees (30.4%) are also very affected. On the contrary, Yvelines and Haute-Savoie are the good students, with a poverty rate of respectively 11.8% and 12.6%.
Another category concerned is single-parent families. “In this family configuration, a single individual carries all the income,” notes Julien Damon. For people over 65, Cantal is the most representative with a poverty rate of 16.9%. Gers (16.2%) and Lozère (15.9%) are also among the most affected. Conversely, the Yvelines concentrate a poverty rate of 3.8 among seniors. “They are the most favored of the French system, says Julien Damon. Poverty depends on population flows. If the rich leave and the poor arrive, the poverty of the territory will increase “.
• Remuneration: large cities and favored DOMs, rural South penalized
One in two French people earns more than 19,246 euros net per year (1603 euros per month). But between the department of Hauts-de-Seine (31.040 euros), which is the one whose inhabitants are the best paid, and Mayotte closes the ranking (15.930 euros), the inequalities are blatant. Paris and its region squat in the top 15: with the exception of Seine-Saint-Denis, all departments of the Île-de-France are present. The Oise also benefits from the high salaries practiced in and around the capital. Other privileged: the inhabitants of the overseas departments, four of which appear at the top of the ranking. The other three departments that complete the top 15 (Haute-Garonne, Rhône, and Bouches-du-Rhône) benefit from the dynamism and attractiveness of their capital – Toulouse, Lyon, and Marseille respectively – to raise wages.
At the bottom of the ranking, we find the only DOM not to be part of the top 15, Mayotte. Another particularity: the South is overrepresented, with no less than 11 departments located under the axis Limoges-Clermont-Ferrand-Lyon in the last fifteen places. The tourist attractions of the coast preserve them, however, since neither the Côte d’Azur nor the Atlantic coast is concerned. Rather, the predominantly rural departments suffer the lowest wages; average wages plunge into the “very low-density old-age campaigns” according to the terminology used by the Territorial Observatory.
• Migratory flows: a France of the West and the South, attractive, and a France of North-East which is less
The map of interdepartmental migration distinguishes “a France from the West and the South, attractive, and a Northeast France that is less,” summarized the INSEE in an analysis following the 2006 population census. observation – already observed in the 90s – is still true today. Among the departments that see the most inhabitants leave, Seine-Saint-Denis wins the palm with a balance of -0.8% between 2006 and 2011 (latest INSEE data), followed by the Haute-Marne (-0.6%), Nord (-0.5%), or Pas-de-Calais (-0.3%), Vosges (-0.2%), the Ardennes ( -0.4%) … Paris (-0.2%) and all the departments of Ile-de-France have also lost their attractiveness. These urban departments around the capital, which were very much in demand in the 90’s, do not attract as much.
Conversely, the rural departments take their revenge after being deserted for several decades, “thanks to the increase in mobility (…) and thanks to the use of information and communication technologies, more and more frequent, “explains the Interministerial Delegation for Regional Planning and Regional Attractiveness (DATAR) in a recent report. The rather rural departments, located in the West on the coast (Vendée, Morbihan, Côtes-d’Armor …), South-West (Tarn-et-Garonne, Tarn, Landes, Aude, Ariège …), as well as in the Massif Central (Corrèze, Creuse …) have strengthened their attractiveness. The migratory trend remains bearish, on the other hand, for the territories furthest away from cities where households are reluctant to settle, such as the Orne (-0.2%) or the Loire (-0.1%). “In sparsely populated areas, the public transport offer is weak or non-existent in the direction of the employment centers. In addition, these territories do not benefit from a wide variety of services, “says Datar.